Friday, 28 October 2016

TRANSITION FROM MEDIEVAL TO MODERN LITERATURE IN THE CHAUCERIAN LITERARY AGE

medival to modern literature
Chaucerian literature is essentially humanitic . It is certainly different  from and superior to its preceding literature in its interest in humanity -in human character and conduct . Chaucer's  sketches are great character studies as also the portraits of the basic aspects of human nature .

Chaucer's  literary  achievement are unique , not merely in bulk but also in creativity and originally .. His literary world is not antique , but modern . This is a steady step towardsthe great age of the Renaissance . His genius is found to put fresh and formative spirits into old things and to turn gross into gold .

Chaucer's contemporaries and successors are definitely not comparable with him . But they are more or less his followers and imitators . Naturally , they are found to have shared in the contribution to the enlargement of English literature and the preparation for the Renaissance . 

It is , therefore , remarkable to take notes if different literary men and works in the world of Chaucer , which are not Chaucerian in origin , but bear in greater or lesser degrees , his majestic influence and found to bear out amply a translation in literature from medievalism to modernism .

But what is more about Chaucer is his application of the common dialect of London and its neighbourhood as his poetic diction . This is known as the King's English which became , owing largely to his own work , the sole literary  language throughout England . 

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

NEW SPIRIT INTRODUCED BY CHAUCER / CHAUCER AS THE HARBINGER OF A NEW LITERARY AGE

Chaucer belonged to the medieval age - a dark age - an age dominated by the kingly authority , the Catholic Church and the are ignored and trampled down by the feudal structure of the then society . Literature , as the mirror of that feudal society , was centred around homiletic songs , and knightly romances . Man , rather the average individual man , had no place in that literature of feudal dominance .

Chaucer came in such an age . His varied experiences of strain and stress and suffering made him wiser of his and society . Moreover , his personal involvement in servitude , captivity and feudal atrocities as also his intimate acquaintance with foreign literary masters added to his knowledge  and experience . All those factors formed his literary magnitude as well as magnificence .

And Chaucer brought a new leaf to the old and worn out feudal literature . He introduced a new spirit into the literature of his age by his rare creative excellence . That led the way to the flowering of the Renaissance in English literature a century after. Chaucer appeared to have acted here as the very harbinger of the great moderns .

Chaucer's age was of the medieval authoritarianism . Royal absolutism , Catholic rigours and baronial arrogance , as already  asserted , marked the age. Yet , England was then in a transitional phase . The dark age of medievalism was in its last phase. So long down -trodden masses began to rise and protest against the tales of injustice and wrong . The Peasants revolution brought that glaringly on the surface . The triple authority of the crown , the Catholic Church  and the peers was in an utter discord . The overbearing attitude  of the church  and the peerage was curbed by the king out of this individual personality and capabilities . Corruption in the high officers of the church  and covetous licence among the mighty lords were exposed and defied and even thrashed by the king for his own interest.  There were new trends to oppose and criticise old beliefs, notions and views . It was a changing phase in England .

Chaucer  emerged in that phase of transition . He played a major part in paving the road to that transtion from medievalism to modernism by the wonder of his creative literature . Herein lies the essence of a master , who , though of the old world , remains with the great moderns .

Indeed , English literature  was awakened in the second half of the fourteenth century from the stagnation of stereotyped medieval literature . That was made possible due to genius of a great literary master Geoffrey Chaucer . English literature , in course of its advancement from tge old English period to the Middle English , reached a height of excellence in Chaucer's  hand , in his mighty literary works of a lasting fame .

Medieval English literature , prior to Chaucer , mainly consisted of Christian homilies , sermons and lives , Romans , allegorical poems , in addition to religious and ethical prose writtings . These are all more or less stereotyped literary accounts of some saints , nuns , chivalrous knights and lovely ladies . Individual traits in men are all missing in them . Characters are only known as princes , knights ,  lovely ladies , priests , innkeeper's , shoe maker's , different guildsmen , and so on . But Chaucer brought lliveliness and individuality to preceding barren medieval literature . 



Tuesday, 25 October 2016

CHAUCERIAN LITERATURE AS COMEDY / COMIC ELEMENTS IN CHAUCER : WIT AND HUMOUR IN CHAUCERIAN LITERATURE

Chaucer belonged to the medieval age . It was a dark age , haunted with Catholic austerity and feudal atrocity and feudal atelrocity . Spontaneity in life was all kept suppressed and silenced by the rigours of the authority .
Naturally , in such a state , the genial zest for life was found to be missing in the literary pursuits of the time . Yet , Chaucer breathed in plenty spirit and liveliness , so much needed in lasting creative literary works . In fact , he had in plenty what most of his fellow poets lacked unfortunately , the sense of the comic , rare for his age . 

The comic spirit is particularly resonant  in two elements-wit and humour . In fact , the fun of life and literature is closely associated with the flash of wit and the depth of humour . Wit is an intellectual flash rather a sort of intellectual exercise and it gives diversion and delight . Humour , too , is an intellectual gift , a sensitive expression . It causes laughter just as wit does . But the play of wit is spectacular , somewhat superficial , but in humour , laughter is deep and dignified . Both these elements of wit and humours are necessary constitution in the respresent of any sense of the comic . This is so with Chaucers literary talent . His creative genius bears out , in a plentiful measure , his wonderful  sense of humoum with which the rare flash of wit is found well mingled .

The Canterbury  Tales , Chaucer's  last and best work , is imbued with his most delighted  sense of the comic . The work is , no doubt , great as a wonderful  document of the English social life of the fourteenth century . But it is also a delightful comedy of human life , a grand social comedy , through it is no drama technically .

Chaucer's comic art is vividly revealed in The Canterbury  Tales . In his conceptiin and execution of the entire work , a truly comic spirit is intensely felt . The idea of bringing so many pilgrims together is certainly  quite humorous . But more humorous and witty is his description of different pilgrims , with the wonderful fidelity to reality  and a profound sense of humorous . Chaucer makes his pilgrims  quite engaging . Chaucerian humour is certainly the chief draw here .

As a comic artist , Chaucer goes deep to what is incongruous in human life and behaviour . He does not fail to make fun with the pilgrims  drawn  by him in the prologue . All his portraits sharply indicate a sense of joy that the true comedy possesses . Thus , although the Knight is not drawn  for the purpose of fun , the poet makes diverting reflextions on his horse and its nature . His horse was good , but he was not gay . More enjoyable , however , seems Chaucer's  description  of the Cook . He mentioned  the Cook's skill in different ways , and in doing so , he also makes fun of his nature .

Saturday, 22 October 2016

CHAUCER AS THE CHRONICLER OF THE SOCIETY OF HIS TIME : PROLOGUE TO THE CANTERBURY TALES AS A SOCIAL DOCUMENT

As a story- teller in verse , Chaucer , no doubt a unique master of narration is found to be grand observer of life and society around him . As he narrates his tale , in simple and melodious verses , and creates engaging charcters , he presents , too , the life of his time scrutinises its specific traits , with lively and realistic touches .

In The Canterbury Tales , which is the crowing glory of Chaucer's literary achievements , is found fully exhibited his power to represent the fourteenth century English society in its different aspects , ecclesiastical as well as secular , with a rare artistry . The Prologue to The Canterbury  Tales is found to testify to his close association with the English life of his time . Truly speaking , it remains a great social documents of fourteenth  century English life in verse.

Indeed , in the prologue , Chaucer represented adequately different strata of the English conmunity under the feudal hierarchy . He presents here different character to represent different classes of medieval English society . His triumph lies in his power of observation and analysis that makes his characters typical of the age or society they represent , Here Chaucer stands without any parallel among his predecessors and contemporaries . 

The very conception , on which The Canterbury Tales is based , has a social background . Chaucer is found to exploit here the medieval religious practice to visit the tomb of Thomas Becket at Canterbury . That was a custom in which all the sections of the British people were participants . The pilgrimage to Canterbury is the occasion of Chaucer's Prologue in which he introduces different pilgrims , belonging to different professions , occupations , or functions , both secular and ecclesiastical .

Indeed , the Prologue alone bears out Chaucer's power to observe and examine , in a vivid and lovely manner , the fourteenth century . Except the highest ranks of the feudal order , the varons and the bishops , and the lowest , the serfs , all other sections are possibly represented through different characters , making pilgrimage to Canterbury .

In fact , Chaucer is found to present the then English society through different portraits introduced by him as the pilgrims to but they mainly focus the social types which are represented  in the work . Above all , colour , variety , interest and charm which Chaucer  had represented through  his portraits of pilgrims  make the whole social picture precise , clear , engaging and emphatic .

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

PROLOGUE TO THE CANTERBURY TALES

The Canterbury Tales , though an unfinished work , is definitely the best specimen of Chaucerian literature and remains unsurpassable in the English literary works before Spenser . What , however , constitutes the crowning interest in this unfinished work is the finished and most artistic execution of the Prologue to the Tales .

Prologue implies a kind of introduction and in his sense the prologue to the Canterbury Tales may be taken as Chaucers introduction to his whole literary scheme in the work . He , no doubt , intended to make the Prologue a befitting introduction to his entertaining tales about which he had perhaps not drawn any definite plan . His original plan to have two stories , told by each pilgrim enroute to Canterbury and two more in course of the return journey , is given out here .

Of course , that was , perhaps only schemed ,  but not put into any definite literary action . Nervertheless , the Prologue was employed by him , with an eye to the whole scheme as a just introduction to his numberous tales , characteristic of the age .

But what Chaucer has achieved in the Prologue is something more than a mere introduction . The Prologue to Canterbury Tales to Canterbury and planning to make their journey diverting and free from monotony by telling tales to one another .

The most important thing that Chaucer is found to have accompanied in his introductory purpose is to bring the picture of the entire English society of his time , and this is truly a unique attainment . Within the brief compass of some eight hundred and sixty lines , the poet has presented the whole English conmunity of the fourteenth century with different classes and ranks and professions , except the nobles , the bishops and the serfs . This is really a commendable representation in a precise and entertaining manner . Indeed , Chaucers Prologue passes from a mere introductory verse to a poetical social chronicle of a high order.


Wednesday, 5 October 2016

THE FUTURE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION (LITERATURE BASED)

Our mother tongue Bengali. It is not only the face, and the language is in our hearts. We are in a dream, dream. We sing in this language life, arrange your life, all the joy of life, express excitement. Bengali was introduced at our world a unique, extraordinary people, as a nation-loving heart of her mother tongue, and fresh blood poured out on the streets did not skimp.
The globalization today 'Global Village'. One day we will be a resident of the Global phyamilira. And that day is not too far away.
The English name is a very clever and intelligent people. The only nation on earth, there are no Independence Day.What does that mean? This means that they would never submit to anyone.None of them has ever covered chain of subservience. But one day, they ruled half the world. It was the British Empire, the sun never went down.
Their vigor and intelligence in the world, many countries have ruled. One day they came from thousands of miles away to do business in the upper-shaved head of the sub-continent could be. They left India in 1947 without bloodshed, but still most of them written by the public in all of India. They left with the laws of our country is still kacari Court.
At one time, nearly half of the world ruled by the British sadarpe. Today is their day, however. However, their talent, intellect, geist, literature, language and culture ebansarbopari the world today, they are staying.
Their mother tongue is English, the international language of the world, established today. Aphisiyyala language as well as almost all of the countries of the introduction of the language. There are widely practiced in our country and the language.
In the case of rail and air travel tickets, bank statements, certificate otransakripta Board, the use of English as the leading verdict. International business transactions, etc. to the English. Yatasaba in the world, jnana science all written in English.
However, in our country, how the English language is being practiced nowadays? Our school, college or university and how the groups are taught in the language?
The system is being adopted in our country pathadane English subject matter, it does not seem to be getting some work done. English dominates the KG school education, including various kinds of English medium schools and English language schools and colleges in the nation when it was established as dakhalata is decreasing day by day. Nowadays quickly into the streets of English language learning various signs, such as IELTS, TOEFL, seven or -five days that offer English language teaching how to split up, keeps track of who? British Council and it is not less. There is no passage in this regard then. And as our reputation is declining, the more we are going to be isolated abroad. And that was the day, our country passed the entrance could speak English fluently. A lot of time with them, and even the British could never afford.
But what the hell? Nowadays, many of us BA-MA, to be passed on to the beautiful boy of itself pilera two lines can not write or speak English.
During the nineties of the last century in our country the benefit of their students in the graduating class for use in attaining the goal of raising the same issue of the English. The degree and level of English is not mandatory.Secondary and higher secondary levels, where two letters of 00 marks in English are mandatory, there is no reason to degree level in a letter just 100 marks is mandatory? Degree level education in English by compressing jatitara What we do is defeat! During the nineties, who has studied, most of them engaged in the teaching profession at different levels. They are able to give their students how to learn English, if the input they consider themselves to say good parenakathinyera school with 100 high school number 00 and 300 degrees, the level should be mandatory. But at the opposite. In this way the teachings of our cases, the opposite appears to be more active cakatai.
Our primary level, secondary level and Communicative Approach Competence -based system has been introduced in the name of the question, the age of our students at all levels, how much talent and rucike priority has been given to what appeared to be the big question. Translation excluding any I do not think that has been achieved. Translation, we learned our time trying to learn English, you've got a great deal. Grammatical rules for the use of the item, Pair of words, Phrase & idoms aid, etc. With the growth of Competence in English had the opportunity today to our doctrine of Tense neiamara very beautifully to the rules, there is now the opportunity to learn as . From the sixth to the ninth-tenth grade NCTB Free Grammar and Composition books that have been written in the book in English. It was apparently more harm than benefit.
At the primary level and secondary level students from English Unseen Passage accompaniment What is the answer?What do you think of all the boys in the sisu Creation fear is not English?
Listening and Speaking once again in recent years for (10 + 10) = 0. number has been assigned. In fact, the amount of these practices are, or will be, it should have considered before.
Indeed, the incoherence of our country, our new generation of English education English language teaching bhitasraddhai making every day. All the duties and responsibilities of all concerned in our education.

Saturday, 1 October 2016

CHAUCER'S THE CANTERBURY TALES

Chaucer's  most criginal and truly English work is The Canterbury Tales , Which is the product of his sufficient maturity as a story-teller in verse . In this very ambitious project , Chaucer is found to turn to England and the English society of this time . The work ,breathing the spirt of genuine poetry , is a laudable effort to capture the spirit of England in the fourteenth century , and may well be taken as an emblem of truly national poetry , as a national social epic of fourteenth century England .

Chaucer began to work on The Canterbury Tales about 1387 , in which his wife philippa Chaucer , as far as known , died . He continued to work on it till his own death , some thirteen years after . Obviously , the work was left unfinished by him .

The formulation of the scheme of The Canterbury Tales was certainly activated by the practice of a large number of pilgrims to visit the holy tomb of St. Thomas at Canterbury . It was common for such pilgrims to move in groups for security and to entertain themselves with  various stories for relaxation during their journey from London which generally lasted for three days or more .

Chaucer planned a comprehensive portrait of his contemporary society from the conventional pilgrimage to Canterbury . He brought together several pilgrims , belonging to different stations and occupations and geared up his creative genius to enliven them all .

The Canterbury Tales , as already asserted , to Chaucer English period . His main inspiration is , no doubt , the English society of his own time . Yet , the influence of foreign masters mights well be traced in the work . The subtle dwployment of realistic details in Dante's Divina Commedia appears to have an influence on his description of the pilgrims in the General prologue to the Tales . Again , Boccaccio mechanic contrivance of the collection of stories ib the Decameron might have provided Chaucer with the plan to attribute different tales to different pilgrims . Of course , Chaucer literary genius is found to have transmuted Boccaccio metal into gold.

Chaucer's plan in The Canterbury Tales , as noted already , is quite extensive. There are thirty pilgrims , including the author himself , who are to visit Canterbury . Those pilgrims  are selected from different walks of life . There are tge friar , the monk , the priest , the pardoner , the summoner , the parson , the knight , the squire , tge frankin , the merchant , the doctor of medicine , the cook and so on .